Associated conditions result in intestinal intussusception in children

An 8 year old boy is seen in the emergency room secondary to abdominal pain. Further evaluation confirms the presence of intussusception. The most likely precipitating cause for this intussusception is :
  • A) colon polyp
  • B) Meckel's diverticulum
  • C) lymphoma
  • D) parasite infection
  • E) foreign body
The answer is C.
Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in the first 2 years of life. It is more common in males than in females. In most cases (85%) the cause is not apparent. Associated conditions that can result in intussusception include :
-polyps, Meckel's diverticulum, Henoch–Schonlein purpura, lymphoma, lipoma, parasites, foreign bodies, and viral enteritis with hypertrophy of Peyer patches.

Intussusception of the small intestine occurs in patients with celiac disease and cystic fibrosis—related to the bulk of stool in the terminal ileum. Henoch–Schonlein purpura may also cause isolated small-bowel intussusception. In children older than 6 years, lymphoma is the most common cause. Intermittent small-bowel intussusception is a rare cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

Hay WW Jr, Levin MJ, Sondheimer JM, et al., eds. Current pediatric diagnosis & treatment, 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007:616–617

Burns Injury and Burns Degrees

example of 2nd dgree burn

A burn is a part of traumatology that is caused by heat, radiation, chemicals or electricity. Burns affect usually the skin (epidermis and dermis).Affection of deeper tissues, such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels may be fatal

1-Outer skin layer
2-Middle skin layer
3-Deep skin layer
4-First degree burn
5-Second degree burn
6-Third degree burn

Burns can be classified by depth of injury into :
1st degrre burn
1- 1st Degree Burns ;the least severe of commonly seen burn injuries, just affects the epidermal layer and appears as dry area of redness "erythema" with pain and tingling sensation.
1st degree burn usullay has no complication and healed in about 1 week.

2- 2nd Degree Burns ; this type of burn affects tha dermis layer and may be subdivided into superficial partial thickness and deep partial thickness.
These second-degree burns are characterized by extreme pain and appears as wet, red, swollen and blistered areas. healing time 2-3 weeks and complications like Local infection/cellulitis, Scarring, Contractures may be seen.

3- 3rd Degree Burns ;affect the whole thickness of the skin and should be treated in a hospital setting, Symptoms may include:

*dry and leathery skin
*black, white, brown, or yellow skin
*lack of pain because nerve endings have been destroyed

4- 4th Degree Burns ;are life threatening injury where the burn Extends through skin, subcutaneous tissue and into underlying muscle and bone, the affect limb usually amputated.